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At a hop ranch

Herbert Lawson Rae next to horse; Robert Stewart (Bert) Rae on horseback.

Hop farming was Squamish's first major industry. The major producer was Squamish Valley Hop Raising Co. (Bell-Irving Ranch). Hops are perennials and grown about 6 feet apart. They are picked during September and August. Hops are dried and bleached with sulphur in a kiln. In Squamish, Chinese labour was brought in to tend the hops. Local First Nations picked them. They would camp in the area now between Petro Canada gas station and the Cottonwood condominiums. The hops in Squamish were top grade. They were shipped to Vancouver in bales wrapped in Burlap, then shipped to Britain where they were used to make beer.

At the FMC site

Janet Eadie and son Fred at the FMC site.

FMC is an international corporation that produces basic chemicals and industrial and agricultural machinery. The original company produced equipment specifically for canning, dried fruit, and orchard spraying. Hence the name: Food Machinery Corporation.

In 1948, when the company began producing chemicals, the name was changed to the Food Machinery and Chemical Corporation. With further product diversification in 1961, the name simply became FMC Corporation.

The FMC chemicals division in Squamish produces mainly chlorine, caustic soda (sodium hydroxide) and hydrochloric acid. The chemicals result from the breakdown of sodium chloride by the mercury cell process. The salt that is used by Canadian Oxy's Squamish plant comes from the San Francisco Bay region, where it is recovered by natural evaporation in huge ponds of salt water exposed to sunlight. It is barged from the bay area to Squamish 14,000 or more tonnes at a time.

The chemicals are mainly distributed to the BC pulp and paper industry. Hydrochloric acid is transported by truck while chlorine and caustic soda are stored in tanks and transported by rail or barge.

CanadianOxy has installed equipment that salvages the hydrogen, a byproduct, for burning in the boiler. This provides heat used in the operation of the system.

FMC Squamish plant covers 60 acres of land leased from BCR.

Timeline
1957, June - Pennsalt Chemicals Corporation of Philadelphia announced plans of building a chemical plant in Squamish. Fred Shanneman, president.
1960 - Pennsalt dropped plans. Partly due to high cost of power. Western Minerals Ltd. of Calgary had also dropped plans to build a chemical plant.
1964, July 9 - FMC Corporation announced that a $10 million chemical plant would be built in Squamish.
1965 - Chlor-alkali plant built on the Squamish River estuary by FMC Canada.
1965, October - The British S.S. Argyll bought first cargo of 13,000 tons of Mexican salt to the nearly completed FMC Squamish plant. Was the largest ship ever to enter Howe Sound being 39,665 gross tons and 764 feet long.
1965, December - FMC Squamish began operations as the first outdoor chlorine cell installation in the Western Hemisphere. Plant manager was Charles E. Barnabe and controller was R.C. Bryant. Approximately 60 people were employed.
1970 - Original wastewater treatment plant built.
1974, November 8 - FMC Squamish earned award from Pacific Northwest Pollution Control Association. Presented to resident manager, Ralph Ross.
1983 - Approximately 70 people employed. Plant managaer Jack Selby. Production was at 175 tonnes of chlorine, 200 tonnes of caustic soda (sodium hydroxide) and 30 tonnes of muriatic acid (hydrochloric acid), daily.
1986, December 23 - FMC was taken over by Canadian Occidental Petroleum Limited.
1988, July - 75 people employed at the Chlor-Alkali plant. Plant manager, Brian Thorton. President, Brian Thorpe. Production has risen to a peak of 185 tonnes of schlorine, 217 tonnes of caustic soda and 32 tonnes of muriatic acid (hydrochloric acid), daily. The plant uses 340 tonnes of salt each day. There was not much change after the takeover (eg. no layoffs, strikes, or modernization programs). Products are shipped to Woodfibre and Powell River. Plans to build a hydrogen peroxide plant are on hold. Land has been set aside for the purpose though.
1988, August - Thomas A. Sugalski, senior vice president replaced Brian Thorpe as president.
1989 - Nexen buys plant from FMC Canada and assumes environmental liability.
1991 - Plant shuts down; Ministry of Environment becomes involved and recommends the company pursue independent remediation.
1999 - Remediation order issued by MOE.
2003 - Site remediation complete.
2004 - Provincial Crown transfers the site to the District of Squamish. Special Environmental Award presented to Nexen by the Minister of Environment.

Austin Harry at Sardis Hop Yards

Austin Harry (XwaXwalkn) at Sardis Hop Yards. Hop farming was Squamish's first major industry. The major producer was Squamish Valley Hop Raising Co. (Bell-Irving Ranch). Hops are perennials and grown about 6 feet apart. They are picked during September and August. Hops are dried and bleached with sulphur in a kiln. In Squamish, Chinese labour was brought in to tend the hops. Local First Nations were the pickers. They would camp in the area now between Petro Canada gas station and the Cottonwood condominiums. The hops in Squamish were top grade. They were shipped to Vancouver in bales wrapped in Burlap, then shipped to Britain where they were used to make beer.

Austin Harry on saw

B.P.O.E. Lodge (Hudson House) in background.

Austin Harry (Peḵultn Siyam), of Squamish Nation, lived in Sta-a-mis in the early 1900's.

38033 Second Avenue
Hudson House was originally built in the 1930's as a local community hall (PGE Hall). Built by railway and community volunteers, the PGE Hall was once the site of basketball games, dances, and other gala community events. It later became the Hudson House, and then an empty lot.

Original Use: Community Hall.
1993 use: Rooming House (Hudson House).
1993 condition: Retained original form without significant alteration. Location among newer buildings left the Hall looking somewhat run down.

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